1. Which statement best describes the central dogma of genetics?
a. Genes are made of DNA, expressed as an RNA intermediary that is decoded to make proteins.
b. The central dogma only applies to yellow and green peas from Mendel’s experiments.
c. Genes are made of RNA, expressed as a DNA intermediary, which is decoded to make proteins.
d. Genes made of DNA are directly decoded to make proteins.
e. The central dogma only applies to animals.
2. What is the difference between DNA and RNA?
a. DNA contains a phosphate group, but RNA does not.
b. Both DNA and RNA contain a sugar, but only DNA has a pentose.
c. The sugar ring in RNA has an extra hydroxyl group that is missing in the pentose of DNA.
d. DNA consists of five different nitrogenous bases, but RNA only contains four different bases.
e. RNA only contains pyrimidines and DNA only contains purines.[wp_campaign_1]
3. Which of the following statements about eukaryotic DNA packaging is true?
a. The process involves DNA gyrase and topoisomerase I.
b. All of the DNA in eukaryotes can fit inside of the nucleosome without being packaged.
c. Chromatin is only used by prokaryotes and is not necessary for eukaryotic DNA packaging.
d. Eukaryotic DNA packaging is a complex of DNA wrapped around proteins called histones, and further coiled into a 30-nanometer fiber.
e. Once eukaryotic DNA is packaged, the genes on the DNA can never again be expressed.
4. Which statement about Thermus aquaticus is false?
a. T. aquaticus was isolated from a hot spring.
b. The DNA polymerase from T. aquaticus is used in molecular biology for a procedure called PCR.
c. The DNA polymerase from T. aquaticus is able to withstand very high temperatures.
d. T. aquaticus can survive high temperatures and low pH.
e. T. aquaticus is found in the frozen lakes of Antarctica.
5. Which statement about Escherichia coli is not correct?
a. E. coli is called “the workhorse of molecular biology.”
b. E. coli can grow in a simple solution of water, a carbon source, and mineral salts.
c. All E. coli strains are pathogenic, and therefore must be handled accordingly.
d. The chromosome of E. coli consists of one circular DNA molecular containing approximately 4000 genes.
e. All of the above answers are correct.
6. Plasmids from bacteria can be described by which of the following statements?
a. Plasmids provide an advantage to the host bacterium to compete against non-plasmid-containing bacteria for nutrients.
b. Plasmids are used as a molecular biology tool to express other genes efficiently in the host bacterium.
c. Plasmids are extrachromosomal segments of DNA that carry several genes beneficial to the host organism.
d. Plasmids have their own origin of replication.
e. All of the above statements describe plasmids.
7. Which of the following statements is not correct about the usefulness of fungi in biotechnology research?
a. Fungi produce the blue veins in some types of cheeses.
b. Yeast is responsible for the alcohol in beer and for bread rising.
c. Fungi are called “the workhorses of molecular biology.”
d. The 2-micron circle is a useful extrachromosomal element from yeast that can be utilized in molecular biology research.
e. Fungi produce many industrial chemicals and pharmaceuticals.
8. What mechanism does yeast utilize to control mating type in the cells?
a. Yeast is only able to reproduce through mitosis.
b. The MAT locus in the yeast genome contains two divergent genes
that encode for the pheromones a and a, along with the pheromone receptors.
c. The mating type of yeast is determined by pheromones called b and b.
d. There are no mechanisms to control mating type in yeast because all of the cells are structurally the same.
e. Yeast mating types are generally referred to as either male or female.
9. Which of the following yeast cellular component is typically not found in bacteria?
c. nuclear pores
d. nuclear envelope
e. All of the above are found in yeast and not bacteria.
10. Identify the statement about multicellular model organisms that is correct.
a. C. elegans has been used extensively to study multicellular interactions partly because the creature can reproduce by self-fertilization (genetic clones) or sexually (novel genetic organisms).
b. Based on homology, research on Drosophila mutants has identified genes in the human genome responsible for body patterns.
c. The zebrafish, or Danio rerio, are used to study developmental genetics because the embryonic cells are easily destroyed or manipulated and the effects can be observed within 24 hours.
d. The mouse is a model organism for studying human genetics, physiology,and development because less than 1% of the genes in the mouse genome have no genetic homology in humans.
e. All of the statements are correct.[wp_campaign_2]
1:A, 2:C, 3:D, 4:E, 5:C, 6:E, 7:C, 8:B, 9:E, 10:E,