71. The body produces antibodies complementary to foreign antigens. The process by
which the body comes up with the correct antibodies to a given disease is most like
(a) going to a tailor and having a suit made to fit you.
(b) ordering the lunch special at a restaurant without looking at the menu.
(c) going to a shoe store and trying on shoes until you find a pair that fits.
(d) selecting a lottery prize-winner by means of a random drawing.
72. The antigen-binding sites of an antibody molecule are formed from the molecule’s
variable regions. Why are these regions called variable?
(a) They can change their shapes on command to fit different antigens.
(b) They change their shapes when they bind to an antigen.
(c) They can be different shapes on different antibody molecules.
(d) Their sizes vary considerably from one antibody to another.
73. The biggest difference between cell-mediated immunity and humoral immunity is
(a) how long their protection lasts.
(b) whether a subsequent secondary immune response can occur.
(c) whether clonal selection occurs.
(d) how they respond to and dispose of invaders.
74. Viruses and bacteria in body fluids are attacked by
(a) antibodies from B cells. (b) cytotoxic T cells.
(c) complement proteins. (d) helper T cells.
75. What do the antibodies secreted by plasma cells (the effector cells of humoral
immunity) do to attack their targets?
(a) activate complement to punch holes in them
(b) clump cells together so that phagocytes can ingest them
(c) cause antigen molecules to settle out of solution
(d) all of the above
76. Tissue macrophages
(a) begin their lives as neutrophils.
(b) have short life spans because they self-destruct after engulfing foreign invaders.
(c) originate from monocytes that leave the circulation and enter the tissues.
(d) are most effective against parasites.
77. The idea behind vaccination is to induce _____ without the vaccinated individual
having to get sick.
(a) passive immunity
(b) the primary immune response
(c) anaphylactic shock
(d) nonspecific defenses
78. A group of researchers have tested many chemicals and found several that have
potential for use in modifying the action of the immune system. Which of the following
would seem to have the most promise as a drug for inhibiting transplant rejection?
(a) Compound A13: acts like histamine
(b) Compound Q6: suppresses cytotoxic T cells
(c) Compound N98: a potent allergen
(d) Compound M31: stimulates helper T cells
(a) are high in glycine, hydroxylysine and hydroxyproline
(b) are the most abundant proteins in vertebrates
(c) are the most abundant component of the extracellular matrix in animals
(d) all of the above
80. The ECM of animals cells consists of what three classes of molecules?
(a) protein-polysaccharides, structural proteins, microtubules
(b) structural proteins, lipid bilayers, adhesive glycoproteins.
(c) lipoproteins, polysaccharides, and adhesive glycoproteins.
(d) structural proteins, protein-polysaccharides, adhesive glycoproteins
71. (c) 72. (c)73. (d) 74. (a) 75. (d) 76. (c) 77. (b) 78. (b)79. (d) 80. (d)